Evidence of the first Stone Age settlers in Edinburgh
Arrival of immigrant Beaker people who brought pottery and metal working skills from the continent.
Arrival of the Romans.
Romans construct a fort at Crammond to serve the Antonine Wall. (Wall abandoned in 163AD)
Edinburgh captured by Northumbrian Troops.
Wooden parish church dedicated to St Giles built in the High Street.
Northumbrians abandon their border town.
Malcolm II defeats Northumbrians at Carham on the Tweed.
Alexander I built new stone church on site of St Giles.
Augustinian Canons are given the right to build a burgh in a charter granted by David I. At this time Edinburgh was a Royal Burgh.
Robert the Bruce grants a charter giving the burgh of Edinburgh and the port of Leith to the burgesses.
James II is granted authority to build a defensive wall partway around the City as a measure against attacks from the English. The burgh was already defended on the north by the Nor' Loch.
Edinburgh becomes the accepted capital of Scotland - the permanent seat of Government, site of central administration and law courts. It is also the location of the principal Royal residence.
Work begins on a new larger city defence wall following the defeat at Flodden at the hands of the English.
John Knox the minister of St Giles leads the country's religious reformation.
Mary Queen of Scots returns to Edinburgh from France.
Mary is forced to give up her throne to her infant son James VI.
Edinburgh Castle is held for Mary Queens of Scots against the Regent by Sir William Kirkcaldy of Grange. Finally defeated by the guns of the Earl of Morton, resulting in extensive damage to the Castle.
Edinburgh University is established under royal charter by James VI.
With the Union of the Crowns, King James VI moves to London and Edinburgh loses its permanent Royal residence and court.
Parliament Hall is built behind St Giles. Charles I creates St Giles an Episcopalian Cathedral by Royal charter, thus constituting Edinburgh a City.
Great Plague sweeps through the City.
Oliver Cromwell invades Edinburgh.
The last meeting of the Scottish Parliament takes place before the Union Parliament. Parliament Hall was subsequently used for the Court of Sessions.
A riotous mob forced the Act of Union to be signed in a cellar in the High Street to protect the signatories.
Porteous Riot: Captain Proteous of the town guard lynched in the Grassmarket as a result of opening fire on an unruly crowd.
The second main Jacobite rebellion sees Bonnie Prince Charlie's army camp in Holyrood Park before their unsuccessful bid to regain the crown for the Stuarts.
Edinburgh Lord Provost (George Drummond) draws up proposals for extending the town of Edinburgh in response to overcrowding problems - especially in the Royal Mile, Grassmarket and Cowgate.
Work begins on the North Bridge to create a link between Old Town and the New which is being built on the north of the Nor' Loch. Which is partly drained for the paying of the foundations.
James Craig's plans for the New Town are adopted. The principal streets will be Princes Street, George Street and Queen Street. The first town house is built in Thistle Court.
Building of the Edinburgh University's domed "Old College".
Final section of the Nor' Loch is drained. The New Town extends northwards with a large residential phase.
A great fire destroys a large part of the High Street and some of the Cowgate.
Royal High School is built on Carlton Hill.
The first passenger railway service.
The last public execution in Edinburgh.
Horse-drawn tramcars appear in the City.
Heart of Midlothian Football Club is founded.
Hibernian Football Club is founded.
Electric trams are introduced in 1910.
The Act takes place to amalgamate the burgh of Leith with Edinburgh.
St Andrews House is opened to house the Secretary of State for Scotland and appertaining departments after their move north from Whitehall.
Edinburgh International Festival is inaugurated along with the first Military Tattoo.
Heriot-Watt College is awarded university status.
A referendum proposing devolution for Scotland is defeated. Leaving the Royal High School empty as it was converted especially for the Scottish Assembly.
The Stone of Destiny is returned to Scotland 7000 years after it was taken to Westminster by the English to crown English Kings and Queens. On St Andrews day the Stone was taken to Edinburgh castle for public viewing.
Scotland is to be devolved after a referendum result goes in favour of the Scottish Parliament.
The Scottish Parliament is opened by the Queen. It is being housed in the Church of Scotland while work is carried out on a parliament building in Holyrood.
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